cfaed Publications

PolyGym: Polyhedral Optimizations as an Environment for Reinforcement Learning

Reference

Alexander Brauckmann, Andr'es Goens, Jeronimo Castrillon, "PolyGym: Polyhedral Optimizations as an Environment for Reinforcement Learning", Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT), pp. 17-29, Sep 2021. [doi]

Abstract

The polyhedral model allows a structured way of defining semantics-preserving transformations to improve the performance of a large class of loops. Finding profitable points in this space is a hard problem which is usually approached by heuristics that generalize from domain-expert knowledge. Existing search space formulations in state-of-the-art heuristics depend on the shape of particular loops, making it hard to leverage generic and more powerful optimization techniques from the machine learning domain. In this paper, we propose a shape-agnostic formulation for the space of legal transformations in the polyhedral model as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). Instead of using transformations, the formulation is based on an abstract space of possible schedules. In this formulation, states model partial schedules, which are constructed by actions that are reusable across different loops. With a simple heuristic to traverse the space, we demonstrate that our formulation is powerful enough to match and outperform state-of-the-art heuristics. On the Polybench benchmark suite, we found the search space to contain transformations that lead to a speedup of 3.39x over LLVM O3, which is 1.34x better than the best transformations found in the search space of isl, and 1.83x better than the speedup achieved by the default heuristics of isl. Our generic MDP formulation enables future work to use reinforcement learning to learn optimization heuristics over a wide range of loops. This also contributes to the emerging field of machine learning in compilers, as it exposes a novel problem formulation that can push the limits of existing methods.

Bibtex

@InProceedings{brauckmann_pact21,
author = {Brauckmann, Alexander and Goens, Andr{\'e}s and Castrillon, Jeronimo},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT)},
title = {PolyGym: Polyhedral Optimizations as an Environment for Reinforcement Learning},
month = sep,
doi = {10.1109/PACT52795.2021.00009},
pages = {17-29},
url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9563041},
year = {2021},
abstract = {The polyhedral model allows a structured way of defining semantics-preserving transformations to improve the performance of a large class of loops. Finding profitable points in this space is a hard problem which is usually approached by heuristics that generalize from domain-expert knowledge. Existing search space formulations in state-of-the-art heuristics depend on the shape of particular loops, making it hard to leverage generic and more powerful optimization techniques from the machine learning domain. In this paper, we propose a shape-agnostic formulation for the space of legal transformations in the polyhedral model as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). Instead of using transformations, the formulation is based on an abstract space of possible schedules. In this formulation, states model partial schedules, which are constructed by actions that are reusable across different loops. With a simple heuristic to traverse the space, we demonstrate that our formulation is powerful enough to match and outperform state-of-the-art heuristics. On the Polybench benchmark suite, we found the search space to contain transformations that lead to a speedup of 3.39x over LLVM O3, which is 1.34x better than the best transformations found in the search space of isl, and 1.83x better than the speedup achieved by the default heuristics of isl. Our generic MDP formulation enables future work to use reinforcement learning to learn optimization heuristics over a wide range of loops. This also contributes to the emerging field of machine learning in compilers, as it exposes a novel problem formulation that can push the limits of existing methods.},
}

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